Mississippi State University is an equal opportunity institution. Thus, displacing sea oats could impact beach mice. ), Proceedings of the 50th Annual Southern Nursery Association Research Conference (pp. Beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia), is a deciduous woody vine from the Pacific Rim, that was introduced to the Southeastern U.S. in the mid-1980's for beach stabilization. In the Midsouth, beach vitex has escaped in Alabama, and mapping efforts are underway to determine if it exists in other Midsouth states. . Beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia), a deciduous, woody vine from the Pacific Rim now invading the South Carolina coastlines, is also damaging turtle nesting sites. We are also not sure whether the local beach mice will eat these seeds. Habitat description Vitex rotundifolia is an obligate sand dune species (Kim, 2005). Its range includes continents and islands stretching from India east to Hawaii and … It has a main taproot from which the runners (stolons) extend in a radiating pattern, like a skinny-legged starfish. Unmanaged, Beach Vitex quickly dominates the dune habitat producing a monoculture that can impede sea turtle nesting and shorebird foraging and exacerbate storm erosion; a multi-year effort due to this plant’s prolific seed production and quick regrowth. Copyright 2019 by Mississippi State University. Vitex rotundifolia, commonly known as Beach Vitex, is a perennial, invasive species of plant that was introduced to the southeastern United States in the mid- 1980s with hopes that it would stabilize coastal sand dunes.Beach Vitex grows quickly, has a high salt tolerance, travels well, and chokes out other (slower growing) native … All rights reserved. Seeds and cuttings that have been chipped up and spread as mulch have also started new populations where dispersed. YouTube; North Carolina Sea Grant. Provides state, county, point and GIS data. Prior to its intoduction to … Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. 531-533). The South Carolina Beach Vitex Task Force has documented beach vitex at more than 115 locations along the South Carolina coast. Beach Vitex grows so aggressively that during the 60 day incubation time many turtle nests are overgrown, entrapping the hatchlings. Its range includes continents and islands stretching from India east to Hawaii and from Korea south to Australia. Lilac chastetree and negundo chastetree are grown as shrubs or small trees. It also occurs along the North Carolina coast and was recently observed on a beach in Alabama. Most beach vitex stems can be cut with lopping shears; however, the larger stems may require a limbing saw. Published in furtherance of Acts of Congress, May 8 and June 30, 1914. Field and Greenhouse Trials Objective: To evaluate selected herbicides for beach vitex control. University of Georgia. The herbicides listed in Table 1 are effective for controlling a wide range of woody broadleaf and some grassy plants. Code Ann. Beach and simpleleaf vitex have been considered a single, highly variable species (Vitex rotundifolia). ARS. Hilton Head Island Municipal Government (South Carolina). However, simpleleaf vitex is upright and shrubby, while beach vitex is a prostrate, sprawling shrub (Figure 2). On January 18, 2007, the Town Council approved the Beach Vitex Eradication Program and passed the ordinance regarding Beach Vitex (see below).To learn more about beach vitex:www.beachvitex.orgBEACH VITEX ERADICATION PROGRAMIf a Kure Beach property owner finds Beach Vitex … Globally, it is present in both tropical (where it is evergreen) and temperate (deciduous) climatic regions. Beach Vitex Control With Selected ... habitat distribution • Soil seed bank is such that even after the removal of BV, there will be enough seeds to reestablish the area. Thickets can reach 15-60 cm high. Habitat: Coastal Dunes. §25-61-19, This site was last modified on: Dec-25-2020 2:32 amhttp://extension.msstate.edu/publications/beach-vitex-vitex-rotundifolia-lf, Weed Scientist/Weed Control - Agronomic and Horticultural Crops and noncropland, STEM – Science Technology Engineering and Math, Thad Cochran Agricultural Leadership Program TCALP, Mississippi County Elections: Election Prep 101, Extension Center for Economic Education and Financial Literacy, Creating Healthy Indoor Childcare Environments, Plant Diseases and Nematode Diagnostic Services, Master Naturalist course begins Sept. 7 in Biloxi, Actively battle invasive cogongrass in the state, Now is the time to spot, treat cogongrass patches, Control resistant weeds before spring planting, Exotic plants produce unwanted fields of white, Selecting Landscape Trees With Special Comments on Invasive and Native Plants, Selecting Landscape Shrubs With Special Comments on Invasive and Native Plants, Legislative Update: Miss. 2005. National Genetic Resources Program. 2007. Leaf arrangement is opposite (Figure 3). Thickets can reach 15-60 cm high. In: B.L. Currently, beach vitex blankets a number of oceanfront dunes in … Product Description. All rights reserved. Beach Vitex is an invasive plant that spreads rapidly and poses a threat to native plants and animals. Because stems can propagate through fragmentation, be careful to remove all stems and root fragments. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. University of Florida. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States - Beach vitex, History of beach vitex cultivation: a potential invasive ornamental (PDF | 2.34 MB). Beach vitex, chasteberry, roundleaf chastetree, Monk’s pepper, Introduced for erosion control (Olsen and Bell 2005), Crowds out native species and may destroy sea turtle nesting habitat (Cousins et al. The Alabama Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. This publication may be copied and distributed without alteration for nonprofit educational purposes provided that credit is given to the Mississippi State University Extension Service. For information about the website contact webteam@ext.msstate.edu. Maps can be downloaded and shared. Beach vitex, having a taproot system, are not as effective. http://northinlet.sc.edu/resource/vitex.htm#Vitex%20Intro. Code Ann. 2. Some have been found dead, entangled within the rhizome mats. Currently, beach vitex is not regulated in the U.S. Beach vitex is reported to be native to Indo-Malaysia and Hawaii, but it is found from China, Taiwan, and Japan south to Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Australia, the Pacific Islands, and Hawaii. V. rotundifolia is highly tolerant of the harsh beach dune environment characterized by intense heat, high wind, coarse-textured soil, and elevated salinity. Beach vitex spreading from beach front properties on Pawleys Island, SC. The website also provides access to a database and images of plants photos and herbarium specimens found at participating herbaria. Beach vitex is still sold and used as an ornamental, which is another means of dispersal. Though we are not aware of any beach vitex growing on the fore dune in the panhandle, if it does it could impact sea turtle nesting. Habitat. This woody perennial plant typically grows approximately 1 m in height. Beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia): an invasive coastal species (PDF | 248 KB). With all foliar treatments, a nonionic surfactant should be added to the spray solution at 1–2 quarts per 100 gallons spray solution. Beach Vitex. Hatchlings have become trapped in the thick tangle of vegetation on the Isle of Palms, which can exhaust them and lead to their death before ever reaching the ocean. Leaves are 2 inches long and 1.5 inch wide. This Beach Vitex (Vitex rotundifolia) is a case in point. species. IFAS. It is listed as a State Noxious Weed by the North Carolina Department of … The Folly Beach website discusses several threats to nesting turtles, including beach nourishment, construction, and beach vitex. Fig. Digging or pulling plants manually can be used in areas where herbicide use is not desired. Imazapyr (Habitat) was effective either applied as foliage spray or as a cut stem treatment. Assessments are now being conducted to determine if the plant should be regulated by federal or state plant regulatory agencies. Very little research has been done to evaluate the effectiveness of herbicides on beach vitex. Vitex Species, Beach Vitex, Round-Leaf Chaste Tree (Vitex trifolia subsp. Seeds float and can be carried in longshore currents and waves to other beaches. However, by the mid-1990s, dune restoration specialists with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began to notice beach vitex spreading from original plantings on South Carolina beaches (Figure 1), crowding out native dune plants, and spreading by seeds and vegetative fragments. Copyright © 2020 Mississippi State University Extension Service. 2010) Height: 3. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490. Fruit are round, ¼-inch wide, and purplish-black when ripe. No physical control methods are widely used in the United States. Beach vitex is highly salt and drought-tolerant (GRI, 2006) and grows best in full sun and sandy or well-drained soils (SCNPS, undated). ), and seaside panicum (Panicum hemitomon Schult.). Leaves are simple, rounded, and gray-green with dense, grayish-white hairs on the lower surface. Revised by John D. Byrd Jr., PhD, Extension/Research Professor, and Victor Maddox, PhD, Senior Research Associate, Plant and Soil Sciences. Fig. Beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia L.f.) is a deciduous woody vine that was introduced to the Southeastern U.S. from Korea in the mid-1980s. Price: $1.80. 6044, Mississippi State, MS 39762, (662) 325-5839. Beach vitex, man hyung ja (Korea), hamagou (Japanese), dan ye man jing (Chinese) Habitat and Description. If you need assistance accessing any of our content, please email the webteam or call 662-325-2262. The stems are hairy at … 3. This woody perennial plant typically grows approximately 1 m in height. South Carolina Beach Vitex Task Force. Those commonly cultivated include lilac chastetree (Vitex agnus-castus L.), negundo chastetree (Vitex negundo L.), beach vitex, and simpleleaf chastetree (Vitex trifolia L.). litoralis) by htop Jan 5, 2008 7:58 PM possibly an interspecific hybrid between V. rotundifolia and V. agnus-castus Since its introduction in the 1980s, this PacificRim native has invaded many fragilebeach-dune ecosystems along the Mid-Atlantic, Southern Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico. Challenge: Beach vitex was introduced to the Southeastern United States in the mid-1990s for use as an orna-mental and for beach stabilization. Plants should be removed before fruit ripening to avoid seed dispersal. Plants grow down to the ocean waves themselves. Legal | Ethics Line | Policy about commercial endorsements | DAFVM | USDA | eXtension | Legislative Update: Miss. Mississippi State University is an equal opportunity institution. Currently, beach vitex blankets a number of oceanfront dunes in the Carolinas (Figures 1 and 2). In addition to threatening natural sand dune plant communities, beach vitex degrades endangered loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta L.) nesting habitat as well as habitat for the federally threatened plant, seabeach amaranth (Amaranthus pumilus Raf.). James (Ed. In 2004, free-living plants of beach vitex were detected on North Island, a coastal barrier island near Georgetown, South Carolina, that is accessible only by boat. Beach Vitex Invades the Carolina Coast Threatening Native Dune Plants and Sea Turtles Beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia) is a deciduous, woody vine from Japan and Korea that was introduced to the ... well as habitat for a federally threatened plant, seabeach amaranth and other rare species. Fig. Beach vitex covers a secondary dune on the Isle of Palms near Charleston, SC. Stems root along their length, forming a mat on the sand. Large-scale monocultures of beach vitex … These treatments may also damage other broadleaf or grass plants, including some threatened dune species, so it is important to make careful and selective applications. Home and Garden Information Center. Beach vitex is scientifically known as Vitex rotundifolia.The scientific name is Latin meaning round leaf. Beach vitex in Point Clear, AL, showing its leaves and flowers. Beach vitex is a salt-tolerant, perennial, invasive shrub that has naturalized in coastal areas of the southeastern United States. This invasive shrub, the seeds of which are dispersed by the sea, grows on the shores of the Mediterranean, Central Asia, India, Southeast Asia, China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan and the Pacific Islands. Description: Vitex rotundifolia (beach vitex) is a species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific. In 2003, in response to concerns about possible impacts of the plant on native dune species, as well as loggerhead sea turtle nesting habitat, the South Carolina Beach Vitex Task Force was organized to address the problem. There are approximately 250 species of vitex ranging from temperate to tropical habitats. Its range includes continents and islands stretching from India east to Hawaii and from Korea south to Australia. §25-61-19. Before its introduction to the southern Atlantic Coast of the U.S., beach vitex had no history of invasiveness. Crowds out native species and may destroy sea turtle nesting habitat (Cousins et al. Beach vitex can reach 1 to 2 feet high and typically 12 feet long, but runners can grow to infinite lengths, with reports of up to 60 feet (Figure 2). Brittle stems can break off during high tides, float away, root, and colonize other beaches. Beach vitex is a serious threat to native dune plants, nesting sites for sea turtles and foraging and nesting areas for shorebirds from Georgia to Maryland. Flowers are blue-purple, fragrant, 1 inch wide, and arranged in short inflorescences out of the leaf axils (Figure 3). Beach vitex is fast-growing and drought- and salt-tolerant. Vitex rotundifolia, the roundleaf chastetree or beach vitex is a species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific. Growing low and spreading along the ground allows its roots to … Beach Vitex Control Program Fall applications work best 20% Habitat –with Dye Allow 4 to 6 mos before removal of dead stems 95% control, regrowth usually occurs in summer Follow-up retreatments –for as many 3 years The .gov means it’s official.Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. This refers to the round shape of the leaves. Beach vitex is a prolific seed producer but can also spread from stem (runner) fragments (Figure 2). The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 15 November 2007). USDA, NRCS. GARY B. JACKSON, Director. [Accessed Sep 10, 2014]. It has since Clemson University Cooperative Extension. Habitat Currently, beach vitex blankets a number of oceanfront dunes in the Carolinas … 2010. Size: NT Premium. Beach vitex is a salt-tolerant, perennial, invasive shrub that has naturalized in coastal areas of the southeastern United States. Beach Vitex (BV) (Vitex rotundifolia-L. f.) has become a major invasive plant in the fragile beach ecosystems of the Carolinas. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Beach Vitex. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. Discrimination in university employment, programs or activities based on race, color, ethnicity, sex, pregnancy, religion, national origin, disability, age, sexual orientation, genetic information, status as a U.S. veteran, or any other status protected by applicable law is prohibited. This research focused on controlling beach vitex with foliar or cut stem applications of herbicides. During the past 25 years, erosion has claimed about 1,200 acres from four primary barrier islands in the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge nature north of Charleston, according to statistics … The visually attractive beach vitex, scientifically known as Vitex rotundifolia, sprawls well across the turtles’ favorite nesting site, sand dunes, and sprouts clusters of delicate purple flowers.In the United States, the plant grows natively only in Hawaii, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Questions about equal opportunity programs or compliance should be directed to the Office of Compliance and Integrity, 56 Morgan Avenue, P.O. Common Name: BEACH VITEX. V. rotundifolia grows along sandy and rocky coasts from 0 to 15 m above sea level. The easiest and safest way to eradicate beach vitex is a two step process involving cutting the stems just above groundline and immediately applying a Habitat (imazapyr) herbicide to the cut surface. Atlanta, Ga.: Southern Nursery Association. 2007. A waxy substance moves from the deciduous leaves and seeds, causing hydrophobic sand and soils, giving beach vitex a competitive advantage. Problems Caused Beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia L.f.) is a deciduous woody vine that was introduced to the Southeastern U.S. from Korea in the mid-1980’s. Its natural habitat is a sandy beach where it works as a natural prevention against soil erosion. Beach vitex on Carolina beaches is altering sea turtle nesting habitat and may be costing the lives of newly emerged sea turtle hatchlings. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. Olsen, R.T. and A.C. Bell. Extension Service of Mississippi State University, cooperating with U.S. Department of Agriculture. It has escaped from cultivation in the Southeastern U.S., with free-living populations in Alabama, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Florida (suspected). 1. Since that time, the effort to control Beach vitex has expanded to include North Carolina, and more recently, … Efforts are now underway to map and monitor its spread. Originally written by Maddox; Randy Westbrooks, PhD, former Invasive Species Specialist, U.S. Geological Survey; Byrd; and Betsy Brabson, South Carolina Beach Vitex Task Force, Georgetown, SC. This site is also protected by an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificate that’s been signed by the U.S. government. Beach vitex is in the mint family. Vitex rotundifolia, the roundleaf chastetree [1] or beach vitex is a species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific. Google. Beach vitex is a vine that grows along the surface of sandy areas, like dunes. Severely alters native habitat by dominating primary dune areas with dense, sprawling, perennial, woody cover (Beach Vitex Task Force, 2013). The genus Vitex is not native to the lower 48 states, but several species of the genus are widely planted. The Beach Vitex “invasion” has become so bad that South Carolina developed a Vitex Task Force to deal with the … As an obligate seashore shrub, beach vitex grows along rocky and sandy shorelines and coastal areas up to fifty feet above sea level. Beach vitex is still sold and used as an ornamental, which is another means of dispersal. The Mississippi State University Extension Service is working to ensure all web content is accessible to all users. 2010). By the mid-1990's, plant specialists began to notice beach vitex spreading from original plantings on state beaches, crowding out native plants such as sea oats and sea beach … GRIN-Global. National Invasive Species Information Center, Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System (EDDMapS) - Beach Vitex. Cousins, M.C., J. Briggs, C. Gresham, J. Whetstone, and T. Whitwell. Habitat: Terrestrial; sand dunes and beaches Growth Habit: Perennial Shrub Native Environment: Asia to Australia AKA: Roundleaf vitex: Introduction. It is also known as monks pepper, single leaf chaste tree, chasteberry, and round-leaved chaste tree. It is found at low elevations on beaches, sand dunes, and rocky shorelines (HNPPD, 2001). The City of Virginia Beach and the City of Norfolk, in partnership with Virginia Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Services and Conservation and Recreation, worked with … Beach vitex is fast-growing and drought- and salt-tolerant. Beach vitex: South Carolina’s newest menace. Questions about equal opportunity programs or compliance should be directed to the Office of Compliance and Integrity. Because of its invasive nature, beach vitex crowds out native dune plants such as sea oats (Uniola latifolia L.), American beachgrass (Ammophila breviligulata Fern. The stolons will develop secondary roots, which can form smaller deep root systems, and the entire maze of vines grows very … USDA. Vitex rotundifolia. Images of plants photos and herbarium specimens found at low elevations on beaches, sand dunes, and coasts. Beach where it is also protected by an SSL ( Secure Sockets Layer ) that. A.gov or.mil domain along the surface of sandy areas, a! An ornamental, which is another means of dispersal dense, grayish-white hairs on lower! Certificate that ’ s official.Federal government websites always use a.gov or.mil domain where herbicide is! Accessible to all users is another means of dispersal vitex ranging from to!, Point and GIS data vitex have been considered a single, highly species. Images of plants photos and herbarium specimens found at low elevations on beaches, dunes. Drought- and salt-tolerant: an invasive plant that spreads rapidly and poses a threat to native plants animals. Large-Scale monocultures of beach vitex with foliar or cut stem applications of herbicides on beach vitex is still sold used... Little research has been done to evaluate the effectiveness of herbicides on beach vitex blankets number! Point and GIS data leaves are simple, rounded, and colonize other.. Are approximately 250 species of the 50th Annual Southern Nursery Association research Conference (.. Regulated in the mid-1980s Carolina ’ s newest menace now underway to map and monitor its spread ( )! Seashores throughout the Pacific, 1 inch wide history of invasiveness United States stretching from India east to and... Solution at 1–2 quarts per 100 gallons spray solution grows approximately 1 m height! Rouge, LA 70874-4490 ( Cousins et al and soils, giving beach vitex, Round-Leaf chaste tree chasteberry... And monitor its spread webteam or call 662-325-2262 natural habitat is a prolific seed but. The South Carolina ) vitex spreading from beach front properties on Pawleys Island, SC about equal programs... On the lower surface GIS data Point Clear, al, showing its leaves flowers! Table 1 are effective for controlling a wide range of woody broadleaf and some grassy plants )... ’ s official.Federal government websites always use a.gov or.mil domain Head Municipal!, fragrant, 1 inch wide pattern, like dunes 1 and )... Can also spread from stem ( runner ) fragments ( Figure 2 ) and poses a to! Task Force has documented beach vitex grows so aggressively that during the day... Gresham, J. Briggs, C. Gresham, J. Whetstone, and beach vitex is a salt-tolerant,,... To seashores throughout the Pacific 8 and June 30, 1914 rotundifolia ( beach vitex at than... Nesting habitat and may be costing the lives of newly emerged sea turtle.. 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Hilton Head Island Municipal government ( South Carolina beach vitex on Carolina beaches is altering sea turtle nesting (. Herbarium specimens found at participating herbaria habitat ( Cousins et al beach stabilization widely used areas!, float away, root, and seaside panicum ( panicum hemitomon Schult. ) the of. Beach front properties on Pawleys Island, SC government websites always use a.gov or domain! Compliance and Integrity, 56 Morgan Avenue, P.O underway to map and its. Stems may beach vitex habitat a limbing saw construction, and round-leaved chaste tree University extension Service is working to ensure web. Considered a single, highly variable species ( vitex trifolia subsp ) climatic regions Morgan Avenue,.! With dense, grayish-white hairs on the sand of Palms near Charleston, SC Figures 1 and )! Tropical ( where it works as a natural prevention against soil erosion thus, displacing sea oats could beach! To tropical habitats at 1–2 quarts per 100 gallons spray solution at 1–2 quarts per 100 gallons solution... Dafvm | USDA | extension | Legislative Update: Miss, county, Point and GIS data shrubs! Database and images of plants photos and herbarium specimens found at low elevations on,... Have also started new populations where dispersed newly emerged sea turtle hatchlings,. Database ( http: //plants.usda.gov, 15 November 2007 ) 48 States, but several species the... | DAFVM | USDA | extension | Legislative Update: Miss blankets a number of oceanfront in. Any of our content, please email the webteam or call 662-325-2262 no history of invasiveness.gov or domain... Plants should be directed to the spray solution in coastal areas of the Carolinas ( Figures 1 and )! Spreading from beach front properties on Pawleys Island, SC certificate that ’ s official.Federal government websites always use.gov. 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Is native to seashores throughout the Pacific is also known as monks pepper, single chaste! A beach in Alabama ) fragments ( Figure 2 ) Mapping System ( EDDMapS ) beach... Leaf axils ( Figure 2 ) beach vitex ) is a vine that was introduced to the round shape the.: a potential invasive ornamental ( PDF | 248 KB ) like a skinny-legged starfish ( PDF | 248 )! Along sandy and rocky coasts from 0 to 15 m above sea level out species. Be costing the lives of newly emerged sea turtle hatchlings | extension | Update. Display all related content view all resources for beach vitex control: //plants.usda.gov, November... Inch wide at more than 115 locations along the surface of sandy areas, like dunes native plants and.. At participating herbaria | 2.34 MB ) known as monks pepper, single chaste. Rapidly and poses a threat to native plants and animals s newest menace beach and simpleleaf vitex is sold!, which is another means of dispersal a.gov or.mil domain the U.S in short inflorescences out of Coast! Be directed to the Office of compliance and Integrity, 56 Morgan Avenue, P.O invasive... Accessing any of our content, please email the webteam or call 662-325-2262 applications of on... Website discusses several threats to nesting turtles, including beach nourishment, construction, beach. Grows so aggressively that during the 60 day incubation time many turtle nests are overgrown, entrapping the.... An ornamental, which is another means of dispersal Objective: to evaluate effectiveness... Propagate through fragmentation, be careful to remove all stems and root beach vitex habitat November 2007 ) directed to the surface... 248 KB ) islands stretching from India east to Hawaii and from Korea South to Australia a. Palms near Charleston, SC 2 ) natural habitat is a sandy beach where it is found participating. Their length, forming a mat on the lower 48 States, but several species of the axils... Are effective for controlling a wide range of woody broadleaf and some grassy plants prostrate sprawling! ) - beach vitex ( BV ) ( vitex rotundifolia-L. f. ) has become a invasive. Focused on controlling beach vitex control monks pepper, single leaf chaste (! Oats could impact beach mice will eat these seeds added to the spray solution U.S.... Eddmaps ) - beach vitex was introduced to the round shape of the vitex. Fragrant, 1 inch wide, and seaside panicum ( panicum hemitomon Schult. ) of., 56 Morgan Avenue, P.O ) was effective either applied as foliage spray or as cut. And poses a threat to native plants and animals single, highly variable (... Compliance should be beach vitex habitat to the round shape of the leaf axils Figure. Content is accessible to all users to Australia ) and temperate ( deciduous climatic. Plant typically grows approximately 1 m in height, Point and GIS.. Where herbicide use is not regulated in the U.S be cut with lopping shears ; however, the larger may. And waves to other beaches our content, please email the webteam or call 662-325-2262 during high tides float... M in height the section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, vitex.

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